The Knowledge Illusion

The Knowledge Illusion PDF
Author: Steven A. Sloman
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 039918435X
Size: 29.36 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Knowledge, Sociology of
Languages : en
Pages : 296
View: 1824

Get Book

"Two cognitive scientists explain how the human brain relies on the communal nature of intelligence and knowledge, constantly gathering information and expertise stored outside our mind and bodies, to overcome its shortcomings of being error prone, irrational and often ignorant, "--NoveList.

The Knowledge Illusion

The Knowledge Illusion PDF
Author: Steven Sloman
Publisher: Penguin
ISBN: 0399184341
Size: 77.30 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 304
View: 3937

Get Book

“The Knowledge Illusion is filled with insights on how we should deal with our individual ignorance and collective wisdom.” —Steven Pinker We all think we know more than we actually do. Humans have built hugely complex societies and technologies, but most of us don’t even know how a pen or a toilet works. How have we achieved so much despite understanding so little? Cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach argue that we survive and thrive despite our mental shortcomings because we live in a rich community of knowledge. The key to our intelligence lies in the people and things around us. We’re constantly drawing on information and expertise stored outside our heads: in our bodies, our environment, our possessions, and the community with which we interact—and usually we don’t even realize we’re doing it. The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic. We have mastered fire, created democratic institutions, stood on the moon, and sequenced our genome. And yet each of us is error prone, sometimes irrational, and often ignorant. The fundamentally communal nature of intelligence and knowledge explains why we often assume we know more than we really do, why political opinions and false beliefs are so hard to change, and why individual-oriented approaches to education and management frequently fail. But our collaborative minds also enable us to do amazing things. The Knowledge Illusion contends that true genius can be found in the ways we create intelligence using the community around us.

The Knowledge Illusion

The Knowledge Illusion PDF
Author: Steven Sloman
Publisher: Pan Macmillan
ISBN: 1509811052
Size: 70.51 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 688

Get Book

The human mind is both brilliant and pathetic. We have mastered fire and have stood on the moon, and yet every one of us is fundamentally ignorant, irrational and prone to making simple mistakes every day. 'In The Knowledge Illusion, the cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach hammer another nail into the coffin of the rational individual . . . positing that not just rationality but the very idea of individual thinking is a myth.' Yuval Harari, bestselling author of Sapiens and Homo Deus In this groundbreaking book, cognitive scientists Steven Sloman and Philip Fernbach show how our success as a species is down to us living in a rich community of knowledge where we are drawing on information and expertise outside our heads. And we have no idea that we are even doing it. Utilizing cutting-edge research, The Knowledge Illusion explains why we think we know more than we do, why beliefs are so hard to change and why we are so prone to making mistakes. Providing a blueprint for successful ways to work in collaboration to do amazing things, it reveals why the key to human intelligence lies in the way we think and work together.

Mind Is Flat

Mind Is Flat PDF
Author: Nick Chater
Publisher: Yale University Press
ISBN: 0300240619
Size: 38.80 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 320
View: 1988

Get Book

In a radical reinterpretation of how the mind works, an eminent behavioral scientist reveals the illusion of mental depth Psychologists and neuroscientists struggle with how best to interpret human motivation and decision making. The assumption is that below a mental “surface” of conscious awareness lies a deep and complex set of inner beliefs, values, and desires that govern our thoughts, ideas, and actions, and that to know this depth is to know ourselves. In this profoundly original book, behavioral scientist Nick Chater contends just the opposite: rather than being the plaything of unconscious currents, the brain generates behaviors in the moment based entirely on our past experiences. Engaging the reader with eye-opening experiments and visual examples, the author first demolishes our intuitive sense of how our mind works, then argues for a positive interpretation of the brain as a ceaseless and creative improviser.

Lessons From An Optical Illusion

Lessons from an Optical Illusion PDF
Author: Edward M. Hundert
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 9780674525412
Size: 59.70 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 258
View: 6354

Get Book

This book is a bold, modern recasting of the age-old nature-nurture debate, informed by revolutionary insights from brain science, artificial intelligence, psychiatry, linguistics, evolutionary biology, child development, ethics, and even cosmology.

The Seductive Illusion Of Hard Work

The Seductive Illusion of Hard Work PDF
Author: Utkarsh Amitabh
Publisher: Sage Publications Pvt. Limited
ISBN: 9353885272
Size: 79.42 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 312
View: 633

Get Book

People take great pride in flaunting their punishing work routines. The Seductive Illusion of Hard Work establishes that hard work is necessary but insufficient for success. In fact, misdirected hard work is way worse than no work at all. This book includes various real-life examples from the corporate world that has constantly exaggerated the role of hard work and underplayed the critical role of choices and mentorship in creating conditions for success. The young workforce is experiencing burnout and it is suspected that the romantic proclamations and obsession about hard work has lots to do with it. This book discusses all these issues and finally offers a solution-oriented approach to the myth about succeeding in work life.

Denying To The Grave

Denying to the Grave PDF
Author: Sara E. Gorman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0197547478
Size: 22.25 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 439
View: 7230

Get Book

With science denial as a rising danger to public health, Sara E. Gorman and Jack M. Gorman analyze society's resistance to scientific evidence relating to health and safety, and the tools to combat these tendencies. Why do some parents decide not to vaccinate their children? Why do some people keep guns at home, despite ample evidence that doing so increases the risk of a gun-related injury? And why do people use antibiotics for illnesses that antibiotics cannot possibly alleviate? When it comes to health, many people believe that science is wrong, that the evidence is incomplete, and that unidentified hazards lurk everywhere. In Denying to the Grave, Sara Gorman and Jack Gorman explore the psychology of health science denial. Using several examples as case studies, they propose six key principles that may lead people to reject "accepted" health-related wisdom: the charismatic leader; fear of complexity; confirmation bias; fear of corporate and government conspiracies; causality and filling the ignorance gap; and the nature of risk prediction. This fully updated and expanded new edition of Denying to the Grave reviews the most recent research on health science denial, offering a brand new chapter on how the contemporary "assault on science" waged by certain political administrations has eroded public trust in national health and science agencies, such as CDC, FDA, and EPA. Also new to this edition is a chapter investigating the relationship between health crises and misinformation, and what happens to science denial amidst a global public health crisis. Finally, the book proposes a novel approach to counteracting misinformation and improving our ability to understand and accept scientific consensus. In an era in which trust in science has become more important, and yet more elusive, than ever before, Denying to the Grave sheds light on why we often choose to ignore scientific evidence, pointing the way toward a new understanding of how science should be conveyed to the public in order to save lives with existing knowledge and technology.

The Self Illusion

The Self Illusion PDF
Author: Bruce Hood
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199969892
Size: 53.64 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 368
View: 5974

Get Book

Most of us believe that we are unique and coherent individuals, but are we? The idea of a "self" has existed ever since humans began to live in groups and become sociable. Those who embrace the self as an individual in the West, or a member of the group in the East, feel fulfilled and purposeful. This experience seems incredibly real but a wealth of recent scientific evidence reveals that this notion of the independent, coherent self is an illusion - it is not what it seems. Reality as we perceive it is not something that objectively exists, but something that our brains construct from moment to moment, interpreting, summarizing, and substituting information along the way. Like a science fiction movie, we are living in a matrix that is our mind. In The Self Illusion, Dr. Bruce Hood reveals how the self emerges during childhood and how the architecture of the developing brain enables us to become social animals dependent on each other. He explains that self is the product of our relationships and interactions with others, and it exists only in our brains. The author argues, however, that though the self is an illusion, it is one that humans cannot live without. But things are changing as our technology develops and shapes society. The social bonds and relationships that used to take time and effort to form are now undergoing a revolution as we start to put our self online. Social networking activities such as blogging, Facebook, Linkedin and Twitter threaten to change the way we behave. Social networking is fast becoming socialization on steroids. The speed and ease at which we can form alliances and relationships is outstripping the same selection processes that shaped our self prior to the internet era. This book ventures into unchartered territory to explain how the idea of the self will never be the same again in the online social world.

Causal Models

Causal Models PDF
Author: Steven Sloman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198040377
Size: 48.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 224
View: 4482

Get Book

Human beings are active agents who can think. To understand how thought serves action requires understanding how people conceive of the relation between cause and effect, between action and outcome. In cognitive terms, how do people construct and reason with the causal models we use to represent our world? A revolution is occurring in how statisticians, philosophers, and computer scientists answer this question. Those fields have ushered in new insights about causal models by thinking about how to represent causal structure mathematically, in a framework that uses graphs and probability theory to develop what are called causal Bayesian networks. The framework starts with the idea that the purpose of causal structure is to understand and predict the effects of intervention. How does intervening on one thing affect other things? This is not a question merely about probability (or logic), but about action. The framework offers a new understanding of mind: Thought is about the effects of intervention and cognition is thus intimately tied to actions that take place either in the actual physical world or in imagination, in counterfactual worlds. The book offers a conceptual introduction to the key mathematical ideas, presenting them in a non-technical way, focusing on the intuitions rather than the theorems. It tries to show why the ideas are important to understanding how people explain things and why thinking not only about the world as it is but the world as it could be is so central to human action. The book reviews the role of causality, causal models, and intervention in the basic human cognitive functions: decision making, reasoning, judgment, categorization, inductive inference, language, and learning. In short, the book offers a discussion about how people think, talk, learn, and explain things in causal terms, in terms of action and manipulation.

Epidemic Illusions

Epidemic Illusions PDF
Author: Eugene T. Richardson
Publisher:
ISBN: 0262045605
Size: 71.78 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 232
View: 3131

Get Book

A physician and anthropologist questions the Global North's "monopoly on truth" in global public health science. In Epidemic Illusions, Eugene Richardson makes a provocative claim: that public health science manages and maintains global health inequity. Richardson, a physician and and anthropologist, examines the conventional public health approach to epidemiology through the lens of a participant-observer, identifying a dogmatic commitment to the quantitative paradigm. This paradigm, he argues, plays a role in causing and perpetrating public health crises. The mechanisms of public health science--and epidemiology in particular--that set public health agendas and claim a monopoly on truth stem from a colonial, racist, and patriarchal system that had its inception in 1492.

The Grand Illusion

The Grand Illusion PDF
Author: Brendan D Murphy
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780646973357
Size: 65.27 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 606
View: 4909

Get Book

The Grand Illusion synthesizes the best consciousness research with decades of cutting-edge discovery and hard science, empowering you with an intelligent new paradigm and new direction for humanity. This acclaimed book destroys the materialist notion of humans as "meat computers" and lays the foundation for a scientifically-based metaphysics.

Make It Stick

Make It Stick PDF
Author: Peter C. Brown
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674729013
Size: 19.41 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Education
Languages : en
Pages : 313
View: 2584

Get Book

Discusses the best methods of learning, describing how rereading and rote repetition are counterproductive and how such techniques as self-testing, spaced retrieval, and finding additional layers of information in new material can enhance learning.

The Enigma Of Reason

The Enigma of Reason PDF
Author: Hugo Mercier
Publisher: Harvard University Press
ISBN: 0674368304
Size: 76.12 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 408
View: 4804

Get Book

If reason is so useful and reliable, why didn’t it evolve in other animals and why do humans produce so much thoroughly reasoned nonsense? Hugo Mercier and Dan Sperber argue that reason is not geared to solitary use. It evolved to help justify our beliefs to others, evaluate their arguments, and better exploit our uniquely rich social environment.

Not Born Yesterday

Not Born Yesterday PDF
Author: Hugo Mercier
Publisher: Princeton University Press
ISBN: 0691198845
Size: 74.18 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 384
View: 7095

Get Book

Why people are not as gullible as we think Not Born Yesterday explains how we decide who we can trust and what we should believe—and argues that we're pretty good at making these decisions. In this lively and provocative book, Hugo Mercier demonstrates how virtually all attempts at mass persuasion—whether by religious leaders, politicians, or advertisers—fail miserably. Drawing on recent findings from political science and other fields ranging from history to anthropology, Mercier shows that the narrative of widespread gullibility, in which a credulous public is easily misled by demagogues and charlatans, is simply wrong. Why is mass persuasion so difficult? Mercier uses the latest findings from experimental psychology to show how each of us is endowed with sophisticated cognitive mechanisms of open vigilance. Computing a variety of cues, these mechanisms enable us to be on guard against harmful beliefs, while being open enough to change our minds when presented with the right evidence. Even failures—when we accept false confessions, spread wild rumors, or fall for quack medicine—are better explained as bugs in otherwise well-functioning cognitive mechanisms than as symptoms of general gullibility. Not Born Yesterday shows how we filter the flow of information that surrounds us, argues that we do it well, and explains how we can do it better still.

The Money Illusion

The Money Illusion PDF
Author: Irving Fisher
Publisher: Simon and Schuster
ISBN: 1627939997
Size: 16.83 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 109
View: 1628

Get Book

In economics, money illusion refers to the tendency of people to think of currency in nominal, rather than real, terms. In other words, the numerical/face value (nominal value) of money is mistaken for its purchasing power (real value). This is false, as modern fiat currencies have no inherent value and their real value is derived from their ability to be exchanged for goods and used for payment of taxes. The term was coined by John Maynard Keynes in the early twentieth century. Almost every one is subject to the "Money Illusion" in respect to his own country's currency. This seems to him to be stationary while the money of other countries seems to change. It may seem strange but it is true that we see the rise or fall of foreign money better than we see that of our own.-IRVING FISHER

Loserthink

Loserthink PDF
Author: Scott Adams
Publisher: Portfolio
ISBN: 0593083520
Size: 54.56 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Divergent thinking
Languages : en
Pages : 256
View: 1820

Get Book

What is loserthink? If you've been on social media lately, or turned on your TV, you may have noticed there are a lot of dumb ideas floating around out there. "We know when history will repeat and when it won't." "We can tell the difference between evidence and coincidences." "The simplest explanation is usually true." "Stay in your channel." Wrong, wrong, dangerous, and wrong! These false beliefs are the result of what Scott Adams, the creator of the Dilbertcomic and a lifelong student of group psychology, calls loserthink. Loserthink is the epidemic of sneaky mental habits trapping its victims in their own bubbles of reality. Even the smartest and most educated among us can slip into its seductive grasp. If we're not careful, loserthink would have us believe that every Trump supporter is a bigoted racist, addicts should be responsible for fixing the opioid epidemic, any form of gun control is a slippery slope to full confiscation, and that your relationship fell apart simply because you chewed with your mouth open. This book will teach you how to spot and avoid loserthink before it starts to influence you--and will give you scripts to respond when it's being brandished against you, whether by well-intentioned friends, strangers on the internet, or political pundits. You'll learn the best defense against emotionally powerful but vacuous arguments and how to spot the underlying causes of loserthink, like the inability to get ego out of your decisions, thinking with words instead of reasons, failing to imagine alternative explanations, and making too much of coincidences. Using his patented blend of humor and social satire, along with candid examples of falling prey to loserthink from his own past, Adams offers elegant analytical frameworks for clear thinking, evoking the mental models of scientists, economists, entrepreneurs, and artists. Your bubble of reality doesn't have to be a prison. This book will show you how to break free-and, what's more, to be among the most perceptive and respected thinkers in every conversation.

An Illusion Of Thieves

An Illusion of Thieves PDF
Author: Cate Glass
Publisher: Tor Books
ISBN: 1250310997
Size: 31.64 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Fiction
Languages : en
Pages : 368
View: 5382

Get Book

A ragtag crew with forbidden magic must pull off an elaborate heist and stop a civil war in An Illusion of Thieves, a fantasy adventure from Cate Glass. In Cantagna, being a sorcerer is a death sentence. Romy escapes her hardscrabble upbringing when she becomes courtesan to the Shadow Lord, a revolutionary noble who brings laws and comforts once reserved for the wealthy to all. When her brother, Neri, is caught thieving with the aid of magic, Romy's aristocratic influence is the only thing that can spare his life—and the price is her banishment. Now back in Beggar’s Ring, she has just her wits and her own long-hidden sorcery to help her and Neri survive. But when a plot to overthrow the Shadow Lord and incite civil war is uncovered, only Romy knows how to stop it. To do so, she’ll have to rely on newfound allies—a swordmaster, a silversmith, and her own thieving brother. And they'll need the very thing that could condemn them all: magic. At the Publisher's request, this title is being sold without Digital Rights Management Software (DRM) applied.

The Psychology Of Fake News

The Psychology of Fake News PDF
Author: Rainer Greifeneder
Publisher: Routledge
ISBN: 1000179052
Size: 52.66 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Psychology
Languages : en
Pages : 240
View: 770

Get Book

This volume examines the phenomenon of fake news by bringing together leading experts from different fields within psychology and related areas, and explores what has become a prominent feature of public discourse since the first Brexit referendum and the 2016 US election campaign. Dealing with misinformation is important in many areas of daily life, including politics, the marketplace, health communication, journalism, education, and science. In a general climate where facts and misinformation blur, and are intentionally blurred, this book asks what determines whether people accept and share (mis)information, and what can be done to counter misinformation? All three of these aspects need to be understood in the context of online social networks, which have fundamentally changed the way information is produced, consumed, and transmitted. The contributions within this volume summarize the most up-to-date empirical findings, theories, and applications and discuss cutting-edge ideas and future directions of interventions to counter fake news. Also providing guidance on how to handle misinformation in an age of “alternative facts”, this is a fascinating and vital reading for students and academics in psychology, communication, and political science and for professionals including policy makers and journalists.