The Immune System

The Immune System PDF
Author: Paul Klenerman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019875390X
Size: 51.76 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Electronic books
Languages : en
Pages : 119
View: 7167

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The immune system is central to human health and the focus of much medical research. Growing understanding of the immune system, and especially the creation of immune memory (long lasting protection), which can be harnessed in the design of vaccines, have been major breakthroughs in medicine. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul Klenerman describes the immune system, and how it works in health and disease. In particular he focuses on the human immune system, considering how it evolved, the basic rules that govern its behavior, and the major health threats where it is important. The immune system comprises a series of organs, cells and chemical messengers which work together as a team to provide defence against infection. Klenerman discusses these components, the critical signals that trigger them and how they exert their protective effects, including so-called "innate" immune responses, which react very fast to infection, and "adaptive" immune responses, which have huge diversity and a capacity to recognize and defend against a massive array of micro-organisms. Klenerman also considers what happens when our immune systems fail to be activated effectively, leading to serious infections, problems with inherited diseases, and also HIV/AIDS. At the opposite extreme, as Klenerman shows, an over-exaggerated immune response leads to inflammatory diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, as well as allergy and asthma. Finally he looks at the "Immune system v2.o" - how immune therapies and vaccines can be advanced to protect us against the major diseases of the 21st century. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Bacteria A Very Short Introduction

Bacteria  A Very Short Introduction PDF
Author: Sebastian G.B. Amyes
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0199578761
Size: 50.46 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 152
View: 657

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In this Very Short Introduction, Sebastian Amyes explores the nature of bacteria. As a fundamental branch of life, they inhabit every part of the Earth's surface. Amyes examines their origin and evolution, bacteria in the environment, and bacteria and disease, to demonstrate the fundamental role they play in our existence.

Infectious Disease A Very Short Introduction

Infectious Disease  A Very Short Introduction PDF
Author: Marta Wayne
Publisher: OUP Oxford
ISBN: 0191002836
Size: 61.73 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 6550

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As doctors and biologists have learned, to their dismay, infectious disease is a moving target: new diseases emerge every year, old diseases evolve into new forms, and ecological and socioeconomic upheavals change the transmission pathways by which disease spread. By taking an approach focused on the general evolutionary and ecological dynamics of disease, this Very Short Introduction provides a general conceptual framework for thinking about disease. Ecology and evolution provide the keys to answering the 'where', 'why', 'how', and 'what' questions about any particular infectious disease: where did it come from? How is it transmitted from one person to another, and why are some individuals more susceptible than others? What biochemical, ecological, and evolutionary strategies can be used to combat the disease? Is it more effective to block transmission at the population level, or to block infection at the individual level? Through a series of case studies, Benjamin Bolker and Marta L. Wayne introduce the major ideas of infectious disease in a clear and thoughtful way, emphasising the general principles of infection, the management of outbreaks, and the evolutionary and ecological approaches that are now central to much research about infectious disease. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Microbiology

Microbiology PDF
Author: Nicholas P. Money
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199681686
Size: 70.67 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 122
View: 1205

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Describes the expansions of microbiology; it's methods, from traditional microscopy and laboratory culture to the latest genomic analysis.

Food A Very Short Introduction

Food  A Very Short Introduction PDF
Author: John Krebs
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199661081
Size: 48.72 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Nature
Languages : en
Pages : 130
View: 2529

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A brief examination of the history and science of food chronicles four great transitions including those of cooking, agriculture, processing and preservation to consider the sources of culinary preferences, the disparity between malnutrition and overconsumption and the issues associated with obesity, sustainable agriculture and genetic modification. Original.

Viruses

Viruses PDF
Author: Dorothy H. Crawford
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198811713
Size: 61.28 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Medical virology
Languages : en
Pages : 158
View: 1486

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Viruses are big news. From pandemics such as HIV, swine flu, and SARS, we are constantly being bombarded with information about new lethal infections. In this Very Short Introduction, Dorothy Crawford demonstrates from their discovery and the unravelling of their intricate structures, how clever these entities really are.

Blood A Very Short Introduction

Blood  A Very Short Introduction PDF
Author: Chris Cooper
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191665177
Size: 59.73 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 5657

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Blood is vital to most animals. In mammals it transports oxygen and food, carries away waste, and contains the white cells that attack invading microbes. Playing a central role in life, it has had profound cultural and historical significance and plays an important role in religious ritual. Blood was one of the four humours in early Western medicine and is still probably the major diagnostic tool in the doctor's armoury. In this Very Short Introduction, Chris Cooper analyses the components of blood, explains blood groups, and looks at transfusions, blood tests, and blood-borne diseases. He considers what the future may hold, including the possibility of making artificial blood, and producing blood from stem cells in the laboratory. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Drugs

Drugs PDF
Author: Les Iversen
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198745796
Size: 51.16 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 2525

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The twentieth century saw a remarkable upsurge of research on drugs, with major advances in the treatment of bacterial and viral infections, heart disease, stomach ulcers, cancer, and metal illnesses. These, along with the introduction of the oral contraceptive, have altered all of our lives. There has also been an increase in the recreational use and abuse of drugs in the Western world. This Very Short Introduction, in its second edition, gives a non-technical account of how drugs work in the body. Reviewing both legal (alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine) and illegal drugs, Les Iversen disscusses why some are addictive, and whether drug laws need reform. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Geschichte Der Medizin

Geschichte der Medizin PDF
Author: Wolfgang Eckart
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662026163
Size: 43.82 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Medical
Languages : de
Pages : 348
View: 4842

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"Nun zwingt die not deß libes mich / Das in ein bad muoß sitzen ych / Wil ich von kranckheit gar genesen" (Thomas Murner, 1514). Die Badekultur des Mittelalters ist nur eine fesselnde Facette aus tausenden von Jahren medizinischen Wissens und ärztlichen Handelns, die uns der Autor in diesem Buch auf faszinierende Weise erschließt. Neueste wissenschaftliche Erkenntnisse und ein Schatz ergiebiger Quellen wurden vom Autor genutzt, um medizinhistorische Fakten ebenso wie Grundkonzepte und Leitdisziplinen der verschiedenen Epochen optimal darzustellen. Von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart, von der magisch-animistischen Medizin bis zu den Schrecken der Medizin im Nationalsozialismus - hier findet der Interessierte eine Fülle von Informationen, die ebenso spannend zu lesen wie leicht zu behalten sind; denn der Autor hält durch stichwortartige Kapitelzusammenfassungen, im Text optisch hervorgehobene Kernworte und eingestreute Kurzdefinitionen einen sicheren Ariadne-Faden durch die komplexe Materie bereit.

Veterinary Science

Veterinary Science PDF
Author: James Yeates
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0198790961
Size: 35.42 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 160
View: 2041

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Every year billions of animals, from housecats to racehorses to pythons, are treated by veterinarians. The use of veterinary science to treat the health of animals has a long history; for the past five centuries it has developed as our understanding of animals' fundamental biology, pathology, and pharmacology has grown. Rapid global changes expected in the twenty-first century will require the profession to respond proactively, embracing new challenges and opportunities. James Yeates, Chief Veterinary Officer of the RSPCA, introduces the field of veterinary science, covering the history of its scientific and clinical aspects from early practices to recent challenges such as the outbreak of BSE and antibiotic resistance, and considering the differences between human medicine and veterinary medicine. Analyzing the key roles played by diagnosis, treatment, and prevention with regard to the health of farm animals and pets, he relates this to wider aspects concerning public health, such as zoonoses (diseases that jump from animals to humans). Yeates also covers recent "One Health" approaches involving the health of both humans and animals, seen as synergistic, and discusses the challenges for the future of veterinary medicine, including the ethical dilemmas in balancing the interests of owners and animals when they do not coincide. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

Hormones

Hormones PDF
Author: Martin Luck
Publisher: American Chemical Society
ISBN: 0199672873
Size: 31.28 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 136
View: 3899

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Hormones are vital to the workings of the body, and while many people are aware of what hormones do, few have an appreciation of the nature and importance of the endocrine system. In this very short introduction, Martin Luck explains what hormones are, what they do, where they come from, and how they work.

Hiv Aids A Very Short Introduction

HIV AIDS  A Very Short Introduction PDF
Author: Alan Whiteside
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0192806920
Size: 18.41 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Business & Economics
Languages : en
Pages : 147
View: 1261

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HIV/AIDS is without doubt the worst epidemic to hit humankind since the Black Death. Despite rapid scientific advances, there is still no cure and the drugs are expensive and toxic. In some of the worst affected countries, life expectancy has plummeted to below 35 years, which has led to a serious decline in economic growth, a sharp rise in orphaning, and the imminent collapse of health care systems. This Very Short Introduction tackles the science, the international and local politics, the fascinating demographics, and the devastating consequences of the disease, and explores how we have - and must - respond.

International Law

International Law PDF
Author: Vaughan Lowe
Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA
ISBN: 0199239339
Size: 74.53 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Law
Languages : en
Pages : 130
View: 6349

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Interest in international law has increased greatly over the past decade, largely because of its central place in discussions such as the Iraq War and Guantanamo, the World Trade Organisation, the anti-capitalist movement, the Kyoto Convention on climate change, and the apparent failure of theinternational system to deal with the situations in Palestine and Darfur, and the plights of refugees and illegal immigrants around the world. This Very Short Introduction explains what international law is, what its role in international society is, and how it operates. Vaughan Lowe examines what international law can and cannot do and what it is and what it isn't doing to make the world a better place. Focussing on the problems the worldfaces, Lowe uses terrorism, environmental change, poverty, and international violence to demonstrate the theories and practice of international law, and how the principles can be used for international co-operation.

Entwicklungsbiologie

Entwicklungsbiologie PDF
Author:
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 9783827404947
Size: 58.33 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Developmental biology
Languages : de
Pages : 570
View: 7651

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Die Entwicklungsbiologie ist ein HerzstA1/4ck der gesamten Biologie. Mit der Anwendung moderner zell- und molekularbiologischer Techniken und Erkenntnisse hat dieses Fach in den letzten Jahren einen enormen Aufschwung und eine wahre Explosion des Wissens erlebt. Dieses neue Lehrbuch vermittelt vor allem die Grundprinzipien und SchlA1/4sselkonzepte, die die Entwicklungsbiologie einen. Dabei gehen die Autoren davon aus, daA entwicklungsbiologische Prozesse am besten zu verstehen sind, wenn man erlAutert, wie Gene das Verhalten von Zellen beeinflussen. Genetik und Zellbiologie nehmen daher in diesem Buch breiten Raum ein. Zahlreiche didaktisch durchdachte vierfarbige Graphiken und farbige Photographien sowie viele Zusammenfassungen und Aoebersichtsdiagramme erleichtern es dem Leser, die grundlegenden Konzepte und komplizierten Prozesse der Entwicklung nachzuvollziehen und zu verstehen. Der Schwerpunkt des Buches liegt auf den Wirbeltieren und der Taufliege, aber auch Wirbellose wie FadenwA1/4rmer und Seegurken werden behandelt. Wichtig ist die Integration der Entwicklungsbiologie von Pflanzen, die in anderen LehrbA1/4chern oft fehlt. Weitere zentrale Themen und Fragestellungen werden in der zweiten HAlfte des Buches vorgestellt und erlAutert: etwa die Morphogenese im frA1/4hen Embryonalstadium, die Prozesse der Zelldifferenzierung und der Organbildung, die Entwicklung des Nervensystems und der Keimzellen, Regeneration, Wachstum und Altern sowie die heute intensiv erforschten Beziehungen zwischen Entwicklung und Evolution. Ein Glossar rundet das konzeptionell und optisch beeindruckende Buch ab.

The Immune System A Very Short Introduction

The Immune System  A Very Short Introduction PDF
Author: Paul Klenerman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0191068489
Size: 59.46 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Medical
Languages : en
Pages : 144
View: 3489

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The immune system is central to human health and the focus of much medical research. Growing understanding of the immune system, and especially the creation of immune memory (long lasting protection), which can be harnessed in the design of vaccines, have been major breakthroughs in medicine. In this Very Short Introduction, Paul Klenerman describes the immune system, and how it works in health and disease. In particular he focuses on the human immune system, considering how it evolved, the basic rules that govern its behaviour, and the major health threats where it is important. The immune system comprises a series of organs, cells and chemical messengers which work together as a team to provide defence against infection. Klenerman discusses these components, the critical signals that trigger them and how they exert their protective effects, including so-called "innate" immune responses, which react very fast to infection, and "adaptive" immune responses, which have huge diversity and a capacity to recognise and defend against a massive array of micro-organisms. Klenerman also considers what happens when our immune systems fail to be activated effectively, leading to serious infections, problems with inherited diseases, and also HIV/AIDS. At the opposite extreme, as Klenerman shows, an over-exaggerated immune response leads to inflammatory diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Rheumatoid Arthritis, as well as allergy and asthma. Finally he looks at the "Immune system v2.o" — how immune therapies and vaccines can be advanced to protect us against the major diseases of the 21st century. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.