Inheritance Systems And The Extended Synthesis

Inheritance Systems and the Extended Synthesis PDF
Author: Eva Jablonka
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781108716024
Size: 16.62 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 75
View: 2094

Get Book

Current knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and symbolic systems of inheritance requires a revision and extension of the mid-twentieth-century, gene-based, 'Modern Synthesis' version of Darwinian evolutionary theory. We present the case for this by first outlining the history that led to the neo-Darwinian view of evolution. In the second section we describe and compare different types of inheritance, and in the third discuss the implications of a broad view of heredity for various aspects of evolutionary theory. We end with an examination of the philosophical and conceptual ramifications of evolutionary thinking that incorporates multiple inheritance systems.

Inheritance Systems And The Extended Synthesis

Inheritance Systems and the Extended Synthesis PDF
Author: Eva Jablonka
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108607381
Size: 65.86 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 3618

Get Book

Current knowledge of the genetic, epigenetic, behavioural and symbolic systems of inheritance requires a revision and extension of the mid-twentieth-century, gene-based, 'Modern Synthesis' version of Darwinian evolutionary theory. We present the case for this by first outlining the history that led to the neo-Darwinian view of evolution. In the second section we describe and compare different types of inheritance, and in the third discuss the implications of a broad view of heredity for various aspects of evolutionary theory. We end with an examination of the philosophical and conceptual ramifications of evolutionary thinking that incorporates multiple inheritance systems.

Challenging The Modern Synthesis

Challenging the Modern Synthesis PDF
Author: Philippe Huneman
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199377170
Size: 29.18 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages : 352
View: 6259

Get Book

Since its origin in the early 20th century, the Modern Synthesis theory of evolution has grown to become the orthodox view on the process of organic evolution. Its central defining feature is the prominence it accords to genes in the explanation of evolutionary dynamics. Since the advent of the 21st century, however, the Modern Synthesis has been subject to repeated and sustained challenges. These are largely empirically driven. In the last two decades, evolutionary biology has witnessed unprecedented growth in the understanding of those processes that underwrite the development of organisms and the inheritance of characters. The empirical advances usher in challenges to the conceptual foundations of evolutionary theory. The extent to which the new biology challenges the Modern Synthesis has been the subject of lively debate. Many current commentators charge that the new biology of the 21st century calls for a revision, extension, or wholesale rejection of the Modern Synthesis Theory of evolution. Defenders of the Modern Synthesis maintain that the theory can accommodate the exciting new advances in biology. The original essays collected in this volume survey the various challenges to the Modern Synthesis arising from the new biology of the 21st century. The authors are evolutionary biologists, philosophers of science, and historians of biology from Europe and North America. Each of the essays discusses a particular challenge to the Modern Synthesis treatment of inheritance, development, or adaptation. Taken together, the essays cover a spectrum of views, from those that contend that the Modern Synthesis can rise to the challenges of the new biology, with little or no revision required, to those that call for the abandonment of the Modern Synthesis. The collection will be of interest to researchers and students in evolutionary biology, and the philosophy and history of the biological sciences.

Das Egoistische Gen

Das egoistische Gen PDF
Author: Richard Dawkins
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3642553915
Size: 64.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub
Category : Science
Languages : de
Pages : 489
View: 7556

Get Book

p”Ein auch heute noch bedeutsamer Klassiker“ Daily Express Sind wir Marionetten unserer Gene? Nach Richard Dawkins ́ vor über 30 Jahren entworfener und heute noch immer provozierender These steuern und dirigieren unsere von Generation zu Generation weitergegebenen Gene uns, um sich selbst zu erhalten. Alle biologischen Organismen dienen somit vor allem dem Überleben und der Unsterblichkeit der Erbanlagen und sind letztlich nur die "Einweg-Behälter" der "egoistischen" Gene. Sind wir Menschen also unserem Gen-Schicksal hilflos ausgeliefert? Dawkins bestreitet dies und macht uns Hoffnung: Seiner Meinung nach sind wir nämlich die einzige Spezies mit der Chance, gegen ihr genetisches Schicksal anzukämpfen.

Microbiomes

Microbiomes PDF
Author: Eugene Rosenberg
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 303065317X
Size: 35.53 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages : 431
View: 2777

Get Book

This book examines an important paradigm shift in biology: Plants and animals, traditionally viewed as individuals, are now considered to be complex systems and host to a plethora of microorganisms. After first presenting historical aspects of microbiota research, bacterial compositions of individual microbiomes and the critical analysis of current methods, the book discusses how microbial communities inside the human body are profoundly affected by numerous factors, such as macro- and micro-nutrients, physical exercise, antibiotics, gender and age. As described by current research, the author highlights how microbiomes contribute to the fitness of the host by providing nutrients, inhibiting pathogens, aiding in the storage of fat during pregnancy, and contributing to development and behavior. The author not only focusses on prokaryotic components in microbiomes, but also addresses single-cell eukaryotes and viruses. This follow-up to the successful book The Hologenome Concept: Human, Animal and Plant Microbiota, published in 2013, provides a contemporary overview of microbiomes. It appeals to anyone working in the life sciences and biomedicine.

Facts Conventions And The Levels Of Selection

Facts  Conventions  and the Levels of Selection PDF
Author: Pierrick Bourrat
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108889360
Size: 69.88 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 6260

Get Book

Debates concerning the units and levels of selection have persisted for over fifty years. One major question in this literature is whether units and levels of selection are genuine, in the sense that they are objective features of the world, or merely reflect the interests and goals of an observer. Scientists and philosophers have proposed a range of answers to this question. This Element introduces this literature and proposes a novel contribution. It defends a realist stance and offers a way of delineating genuine levels of selection by invoking the notion of a functional unit.

Queer Ecopedagogies

Queer Ecopedagogies PDF
Author: Joshua Russell
Publisher: Springer Nature
ISBN: 3030653684
Size: 14.35 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category :
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 956

Get Book


Reduction And Mechanism

Reduction and Mechanism PDF
Author: Alex Rosenberg
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108605117
Size: 21.66 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 4842

Get Book

Reductionism is a widely endorsed methodology among biologists, a metaphysical theory advanced to vindicate the biologist's methodology, and an epistemic thesis those opposed to reductionism have been eager to refute. While the methodology has gone from strength to strength in its history of achievements, the metaphysical thesis grounding it remained controversial despite its significant changes over the last 75 years of the philosophy of science. Meanwhile, antireductionism about biology, and especially Darwinian natural selection, became orthodoxy in philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and philosophy of biology. This Element expounds the debate about reductionism in biology, from the work of the post-positivists to the end of the century debates about supervenience, multiple realizability, and explanatory exclusion. It shows how the more widely accepted 21st century doctrine of “mechanism”—reductionism with a human face—inherits both the strengths and the challenges of the view it has largely supplanted.

Evolutionstheorie Im Wandel

Evolutionstheorie im Wandel PDF
Author: Axel Lange
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662609150
Size: 65.89 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : de
Pages : 431
View: 2154

Get Book

Die klassische Evolutionstheorie ist unvollständig. Zwar ist die heutige Theorie, die auf Darwin basiert, anhaltend erfolgreich. Doch auf viele Fragen bietet sie keine Erklärung. Welche Vererbungsformen existieren neben der genetischen? Wie entstehen komplexe Variationen im Embryo und evolutionäre Innovationen, z.B. Vogelfeder oder Schildkrötenpanzer? Wie wirkt die Umwelt auf die Entwicklung der Arten und wie verändern Arten ihre Umwelt? Warum ist die Evolution von Vögeln, Korallen oder menschlicher Kultur mit der natürlichen Selektion allein nicht erklärbar? Immer stärkere Forderungen treten auf, die Synthetische Theorie umfassend zu erweitern. Die Erkenntnisse der letzten Jahrzehnte machen ein erhebliches Um- und Neudenken erforderlich. Unsere KI-basierte, nicht-biologische Technosphäre ist in die Evolutionstheorie zu integrieren. Das verständlich geschriebene, exzellent recherchierte Buch liefert spannende neue Erkenntnisse und ist gespickt mit faszinierenden neuen Beispielen aus der Evolutionsbiologie.

The Metaphysics Of Biology

The Metaphysics of Biology PDF
Author: John Dupré
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 100902180X
Size: 28.53 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 969

Get Book

This Element is an introduction to the metaphysics of biology, a very general account of the nature of the living world. The first part of the Element addresses more traditionally philosophical questions - whether biological systems are reducible to the properties of their physical parts, causation and laws of nature, substantialist and processualist accounts of life, and the nature of biological kinds. The second half will offer an understanding of important biological entities, drawing on the earlier discussions. This division should not be taken too seriously, however: the topics in both parts are deeply interconnected. Although this does not claim to be a scientific work, it does aim to be firmly grounded in our best scientific knowledge; it is an exercise in naturalistic metaphysics. Its most distinctive feature is that argues throughout for a view of living systems as processes rather than things or, in the technical philosophical sense, substances.

Comparative Thinking In Biology

Comparative Thinking in Biology PDF
Author: Adrian Currie
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108575005
Size: 10.98 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 278

Get Book

Biologists often study living systems in light of their having evolved, of their being the products of various processes of heredity, adaptation, ancestry, and so on. In their investigations, then, biologists think comparatively: they situate lineages into models of those evolutionary processes, comparing their targets with ancestral relatives and with analogous evolutionary outcomes. This element characterizes this mode of investigation - 'comparative thinking' - and puts it to work in understanding why biological science takes the shape it does. Importantly, comparative thinking is local: what we can do with knowledge of a lineage is limited by the evolutionary processes into which it fits. In light of this analysis, the Element examines the experimental study of animal cognition, and macroevolutionary investigation of the 'shape of life', demonstrating the importance of comparative thinking in understanding both the power and limitations of biological knowledge.

Social Darwinism

Social Darwinism PDF
Author: Jeffrey O'Connell
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108889042
Size: 51.74 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Philosophy
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 6921

Get Book

This Element is a philosophical history of Social Darwinism. It begins by discussing the meaning of the term, moving then to its origins, paying particular attention to whether it is Charles Darwin or Herbert Spencer who is the true father of the idea. It gives an exposition of early thinking on the subject, covering Darwin and Spencer themselves and then on to Social Darwinism as found in American thought, with special emphasis on Andrew Carnegie, and Germany with special emphasis on Friedrich von Bernhardi. Attention is also paid to outliers, notably the Englishman Alfred Russel Wallace, the Russian Peter Kropotkin, and the German Friedrich Nietzsche. From here we move into the twentieth century looking at Adolf Hitler - hardly a regular Social Darwinian given he did not believe in evolution - and in the Anglophone world, Julian Huxley and Edward O. Wilson, who reflected the concerns of their society.

Model Organisms

Model Organisms PDF
Author: Rachel Ankeny
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 110866556X
Size: 71.94 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 726

Get Book

This Element presents a philosophical exploration of the concept of the 'model organism' in contemporary biology. Thinking about model organisms enables us to examine how living organisms have been brought into the laboratory and used to gain a better understanding of biology, and to explore the research practices, commitments, and norms underlying this understanding. We contend that model organisms are key components of a distinctive way of doing research. We focus on what makes model organisms an important type of model, and how the use of these models has shaped biological knowledge, including how model organisms represent, how they are used as tools for intervention, and how the representational commitments linked to their use as models affect the research practices associated with them.

Adaptation

Adaptation PDF
Author: Elisabeth Lloyd
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108575080
Size: 16.19 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 6819

Get Book

Natural selection causes adaptation, the fit between an organism and its environment. For example, the white and grey coloration of snowy owls living and breeding around the Arctic Circle provides camouflage from both predators and prey. In this Element, we explore a variety of such outcomes of the evolutionary process, including both adaptations and alternatives to adaptations, such as nonadaptive traits inherited from ancestors. We also explore how the concept of adaptation is used in evolutionary psychology and in animal behavior, and the adequacy of methods used to confirm evolutionary accounts of human traits and behaviors.

Stem Cells

Stem Cells PDF
Author: Melinda Bonnie Fagan
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108663176
Size: 14.94 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
View: 4632

Get Book

What is a stem cell? The answer is seemingly obvious: a cell that is also a stem, or point of origin, for something else. Upon closer examination, however, this combination of ideas leads directly to fundamental questions about biological development. A cell is a basic category of living thing; a fundamental 'unit of life.' A stem is a site of growth; an active source that supports or gives rise to something else. Both concepts are deeply rooted in biological thought, with rich and complex histories. The idea of a stem cell unites them, but the union is neither simple nor straightforward. This book traces the origins of the stem cell concept, its use in stem cell research today, and implications of the idea for stem cell experiments, their concrete results, and hoped-for clinical advances.