Computational Fluid Dynamics And Its Applications In Echinoderm Palaeobiology

Computational Fluid Dynamics and its Applications in Echinoderm Palaeobiology PDF
Author: Imran A. Rahman
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108896499
Size: 71.52 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), which involves using computers to simulate fluid flow, is emerging as a powerful approach for elucidating the palaeobiology of ancient organisms. Here, Imran A. Rahman describes its applications for studying fossil echinoderms. When properly configured, CFD simulations can be used to test functional hypotheses in extinct species, informing on aspects such as feeding and stability. They also show great promise for addressing ecological questions related to the interaction between organisms and their environment. CFD has the potential to become an important tool in echinoderm palaeobiology over the coming years.

Testing Character Evolution Models In Phylogenetic Paleobiology

Testing Character Evolution Models in Phylogenetic Paleobiology PDF
Author: April Wright
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 100905872X
Size: 44.85 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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Macroevolutionary inference has historically been treated as a two-step process, involving the inference of a tree, and then inference of a macroevolutionary model using that tree. Newer models blend the two steps. These methods make more complete use of fossils than the previous generation of Bayesian phylogenetic models. They also involve many more parameters than prior models, including parameters about which empiricists may have little intuition. In this paper, we set forth a framework for fitting complex, hierarchical models. The authors ultimately fit and use a joint tree and diversification model to estimate a dated phylogeny of the Cincta (Echinodermata), a morphologically distinct group of Cambrian echinoderms that lack the five-fold radial symmetry characteristic of extant members of the phylum. Although the phylogeny of cinctans remains poorly supported in places, this Element shows how models of character change and diversification contribute to understanding patterns of phylogenetic relatedness and testing macroevolutionary hypotheses.

Disarticulation And Preservation Of Fossil Echinoderms Recognition Of Ecological Time Information In The Echinoderm Fossil Record

Disarticulation and Preservation of Fossil Echinoderms  Recognition of Ecological Time Information in the Echinoderm Fossil Record PDF
Author: Willian I. Ausich
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108896472
Size: 58.69 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Reference
Languages : en
Pages :
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The history of life on earth is largely reconstructed from time-averaged accumulations of fossils. A glimpse at ecologic-time attributes and processes is relatively rare. However, the time-sensitive and predictability of echinoderm disarticulation makes them model organisms to determine post-mortem transportation and allows recognition of ecological-time data within paleocommunity accumulations. Unlike many other fossil groups, this has allowed research on many aspects of echinoderms and their paleocommunities, such as the distribution of soft tissues, assessment of the amount of fossil transportation prior to burial, determination of intraspecific variation, paleocommunity composition, estimation of relative abundance of taxa in paleocommunities, determination of attributes of niche differentiation, etc. Crinoids and echinoids have received the most amount of taphonomic research, and the patterns present in these two groups can be used to develop a more thorough understanding of all echinoderm clades.

Expanded Sampling Across Ontogeny In Deltasuchus Motherali Neosuchia Crocodyliformes

Expanded Sampling Across Ontogeny in Deltasuchus motherali  Neosuchia  Crocodyliformes  PDF
Author: Stephanie K. Drumheller
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1009041959
Size: 17.43 MB
Format: PDF
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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New material attributable to Deltasuchus motherali, a neosuchian from the Cenomanian of Texas, provides sampling across much of the ontogeny of this species. Detailed descriptions provide both information about the paleobiology of this species, particularly with regards to how growth and development affected diet. Overall snout shape became progressively wider and more robust with age, suggesting that dietary shifts from juvenile to adult were not only a matter of size change, but functional performance as well. These newly described elements provide additional characters upon which to base more robust phylogenetic analyses. The authors provide a revised diagnosis of this species, describing the new material and discussing incidents of apparent ontogenetic variation across the sampled population. The results of the ensuing phylogenetic analyses both situate Deltasuchus within an endemic clade of Appalachian crocodyliforms, separate and diagnosable from goniopholidids and pholidosaurs, herein referred to as Paluxysuchidae.

The Taphonomy Of Echinoids Skeletal Morphologies Environmental Factors And Preservation Pathways

The Taphonomy of Echinoids  Skeletal Morphologies  Environmental Factors and Preservation Pathways PDF
Author: James H. Nebelsick
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108899579
Size: 41.56 MB
Format: PDF, Docs
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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The study of echinoid evolution, diversity, and ecology has always suffered from the fact that they are represented by taxa showing widely differing architectural designs of their multi-plated skeletons, inhabiting a large range of marine paleoenvironments, which result in highly varying taphonomic biases dictating their presence and recognition. This Element addresses the taphonomy of echinoids and includes: a general introduction to the morphological features of echinoids that play a role in their preservation; a review of processes which play an important role in the differential preservation of both regular and irregular echinoids including predation and transport; a summary of taphonomic pathways included in actualistic studies for recent sea urchins and then reconstructed for fossil taxa; and finally, a case study of the variation of echinoid taphonomy across a shelf gradient using the rich Miocene echinoid fauna of Sardinia.

Echinoderm Morphological Disparity Methods Patterns And Possibilities

Echinoderm Morphological Disparity  Methods  Patterns  and Possibilities PDF
Author: Bradley Deline
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108898041
Size: 17.40 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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The quantification of morphology through time is a vital tool in elucidating macroevolutionary patterns. Studies of disparity require intense effort but can provide insights beyond those gained using other methodologies. Over the last several decades, studies of disparity have proliferated, often using echinoderms as a model organism. Echinoderms have been used to study the methodology of disparity analyses and potential biases as well as documenting the morphological patterns observed in clades through time. Combining morphological studies with phylogenetic analyses or other disparate data sets allows for the testing of detailed and far-reaching evolutionary hypotheses.

Phylogenetic Comparative Methods A User S Guide For Paleontologists

Phylogenetic Comparative Methods  A User s Guide for Paleontologists PDF
Author: Laura C. Soul
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1108897355
Size: 77.62 MB
Format: PDF, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : en
Pages :
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Recent advances in statistical approaches called Phylogenetic Comparative Methods (PCMs) have provided paleontologists with a powerful set of analytical tools for investigating evolutionary tempo and mode in fossil lineages. However, attempts to integrate PCMs with fossil data often present workers with practical challenges or unfamiliar literature. This Element presents guides to the theory behind, and the application of, PCMs with fossil taxa. Based on an empirical dataset of Paleozoic crinoids, it presents example analyses to illustrate common applications of PCMs to fossil data, including investigating patterns of correlated trait evolution and macroevolutionary models of morphological change. It then emphasizes the importance of accounting for sources of uncertainty and discusses how to evaluate model fit and adequacy. Finally, this Element discusses several promising methods for modelling heterogeneous evolutionary dynamics with fossil phylogenies. Integrating phylogeny-based approaches with the fossil record provides a rigorous, quantitative perspective to understanding key patterns in the history of life.

Bionik

Bionik PDF
Author: Werner Nachtigall
Publisher: Springer-Verlag
ISBN: 3662061147
Size: 38.41 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category : Science
Languages : de
Pages : 319
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Dieses umfassende Lehrbuch wendet sich an Studenten, Fachleute und Wissenschaftler und liegt somit im Niveau deutlich über den üblichen Sachbüchern zur Bionik. In einem umfangreichen allgemeinen Teil zeigt der Autor, was Bionik ist, wie sie sich entwickelt hat, wie man Fragen stellt und was Bionik leisten kann. Darauf folgen detaillierte Darstellungen von 40 ausgewählten Beispielen aus den verschiedensten technolgischen Bereichen. Die vielfältigen Facetten dieser interdisziplinären Wissenschaft fügen sich in diesem anspruchsvollen Werk puzzleartig zu einer "Biostrategie in die Zukunft" zusammen.

Ber Die Entstehung Der Arten

  ber die Entstehung der Arten PDF
Author: Charles Darwin
Publisher: Jazzybee Verlag
ISBN: 3849609006
Size: 50.90 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Docs
Category :
Languages : de
Pages : 700
View: 347

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Über die Entstehung der Arten von Charles Darwin (englisch: On the Origin of Species), veröffentlicht am 24. November 1859, ist ein wissenschaftliches Buch, das als grundlegendes Werk der Evolutionsbiologie gilt. Darwin stellte in seinem Buch die wissenschaftliche Theorie vor, dass sich Populationen von Lebewesen im Laufe von Generationen durch den Prozess der natürlichen Selektion evolutionär verändern. Er lieferte zahlreiche Belege für die Vorstellung, dass die Vielfalt der heute existierenden Organismen von gemeinsamen Vorfahren abstammt. Die Serie "Meisterwerke der Literatur" beinhaltet die Klassiker der deutschen und weltweiten Literatur in einer einzigartigen Sammlung. Lesen Sie die besten Werke großer Schriftsteller,Poeten, Autoren und Philosophen auf Ihrem elektronischen Lesegerät. Dieses Werk bietet zusätzlich * Eine Biografie/Bibliografie des Autors.

Die Europ Er

Die Europ  er PDF
Author: Henry James
Publisher: Manesse Verlag
ISBN: 3641166470
Size: 28.56 MB
Format: PDF, Kindle
Category : Fiction
Languages : de
Pages : 240
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Was unterscheidet Europäer von Amerikanern? In seiner leichtfüßigen Komödie bringt Henry James Frauen und Männer von beiden Seiten des Atlantiks erst miteinander ins Gespräch und dann unter die Haube. Einhundert Jahre nach James’ Tod erscheint dieses Frühwerk des geschätzten Autors nun in neuer Übersetzung. Ohne Geld, aber im Vertrauen auf eine gute Partie reisen Baronin Eugenia Münster und ihr Bruder Felix Young nach Neuengland. Mit Adelstitel und Charme umgarnen die beiden rasch ihre Verwandtschaft, den Onkel samt seinen drei erwachsenen Kindern. In wechselnden Paarungen konkurrieren Temperamente und Vorstellungen der Alten Welt mit Werten und Moral der Neuen. Wer sich am Ende an wen bindet, entscheidet sich nach einem quirligen Reigen transatlantischer Beziehungen, der einen neuen Blick auf beide Kontinente und nicht zuletzt auf den großen Autor selbst ermöglicht. Für seine eleganten, doch oft irritierend komplexen Romane berühmt, zeigt er sich in diesem Fundstück als lustvoller Matchmaker mit Tiefgang.

Einf Hrung In Das Recht

Einf  hrung in das Recht PDF
Author: Peter Forstmoser
Publisher:
ISBN: 9783727286759
Size: 56.81 MB
Format: PDF, ePub, Mobi
Category :
Languages : en
Pages : 768
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